Tardive Dyskinesia


Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary and repetitive movements of the face, tongue, lips, trunk, and extremities, caused by long-term use of certain medications known as dopamine receptor-blocking agents.


TD is primarily caused by the use of antipsychotic medications, which are commonly prescribed for psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression.


The symptoms of TD may vary but commonly include:

  • Rapid and jerky movements of the face (such as lip smacking or tongue protrusion)
  • Involuntary movements of the limbs, trunk, or fingers
  • Grimacing
  • Blinking or darting eye movements
  • Involuntary vocalizations (such as grunting or tongue clicking)

Risk Factors:

Some factors that increase the risk of developing TD include:

  • Long-term use of dopamine receptor-blocking agents
  • Higher doses of medication
  • Elderly age
  • Female gender
  • History of alcohol or substance abuse
  • Pre-existing movement disorders


Management of TD involves:

  • Discontinuing or reducing the dose of the causative medication
  • Switching to alternative medications with lower risk of TD
  • Monitoring and managing any underlying psychiatric conditions
  • Medications to relieve symptoms, such as benzodiazepines or botulinum toxin injections

It is essential for individuals experiencing symptoms of TD to consult their healthcare provider for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.