Systemic Lupus Erythromotosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes the immune system to mistakenly attack healthy tissues throughout the body. It is characterized by inflammation and damage to various organs, including the skin, joints, kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, and blood cells.


SLE can have a wide range of symptoms, which may vary from person to person. Common symptoms include:

  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Joint pain and swelling
  • Butterfly-shaped rash on the face
  • Skin lesions
  • Photosensitivity
  • Raynaud’s phenomenon
  • Mouth or nasal ulcers
  • Hair loss
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Headaches
  • Confusion or memory loss
  • Anemia


The exact cause of SLE is unknown, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. Certain genes may predispose individuals to developing the disease, while hormonal changes and exposure to triggers, such as certain medications, infections, or sunlight, can activate the immune system leading to SLE.


Diagnosing SLE can be challenging as its symptoms overlap with other conditions. Medical professionals rely on a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination, laboratory tests, and investigations to make a diagnosis. These may include blood tests to measure autoantibodies, kidney and liver function tests, imaging studies, and biopsy of affected organs, if necessary.


While there is no cure for SLE, the goal of treatment is to manage symptoms, prevent complications, and minimize disease activity. Treatment plans may include a combination of medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antimalarials, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and biologics. Lifestyle modifications, including sun protection, regular exercise, a healthy diet, and stress management, can also help improve the quality of life for individuals with SLE.