Spontaneous Abortion


Spontaneous abortion, also known as a miscarriage, refers to the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week of gestation.


There are several potential causes of spontaneous abortion, including:

  • Chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus
  • Hormonal imbalances in the mother
  • Uterine abnormalities
  • Infections
  • Medical conditions affecting the mother (e.g., diabetes, thyroid disorders)
  • Maternal age
  • Immunological factors


The symptoms of spontaneous abortion may vary, but commonly include:

  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Abdominal cramps or pain
  • Passing of tissue or fluid through the vagina
  • Decrease in pregnancy symptoms


There are different types of spontaneous abortion which include:

  1. Threatened abortion: Vaginal bleeding but with a closed cervix, and the pregnancy may continue normally.
  2. Inevitable abortion: Vaginal bleeding with an open cervix, indicating that pregnancy loss is inevitable.
  3. Incomplete abortion: Partial expulsion of pregnancy tissue, often requiring medical intervention.
  4. Missed abortion: The embryo/fetus dies, but there are no immediate signs of miscarriage.
  5. Recurrent or habitual abortion: Experiencing three or more consecutive miscarriages.


Treatment for spontaneous abortion depends on various factors, such as the stage of pregnancy and the underlying cause. The options may include:

  • Expectant management (allowing the body to expel the pregnancy naturally)
  • Medical management (using medications to initiate or speed up the miscarriage process)
  • Surgical intervention (such as dilation and curettage, or vacuum aspiration)
  • Emotional support and counseling


While some causes of spontaneous abortion are unpreventable, there are certain steps that can be taken to potentially reduce the risk, such as:

  • Ensuring a healthy lifestyle with balanced nutrition
  • Avoiding smoking, alcohol, and illicit drugs
  • Managing chronic medical conditions
  • Getting early prenatal care
  • Identifying and treating infections promptly
  • Discussing potential risks with a healthcare provider