Splitting is a psychological defense mechanism that involves the separation or fragmentation of one’s thoughts, feelings, or behaviors, allowing individuals to cope with or manage conflicting or contradictory emotions or beliefs.

Types of Splitting:

1. Black-and-White Thinking:

Black-and-white thinking, also known as all-or-nothing thinking, is a type of splitting where individuals perceive situations, people, or beliefs as completely good or completely bad, with no room for shades of gray or nuanced perspectives.

2. Idealization versus Devaluation:

Idealization versus devaluation is a form of splitting where individuals oscillate between excessively admiring and valuing someone or something (idealization) and vehemently despising, criticizing, or devaluing them (devaluation).

3. Self and Others Splitting:

In self and others splitting, individuals evaluate themselves and others in extreme and polarized terms, seeing either themselves or others as entirely good or completely bad, often leading to unstable relationships and self-esteem fluctuations.

4. Splitting in Borderline Personality Disorder:

Splitting plays a prominent role in borderline personality disorder (BPD), where individuals may frequently shift between idealizing and demonizing others, experiencing intense fear of abandonment, and struggling with a coherent sense of self.

5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Splitting:

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a commonly used treatment approach for addressing splitting tendencies. It aims to help individuals identify and challenge their black-and-white thinking patterns, develop healthier coping strategies, and foster integration of conflicting emotions and beliefs.