Definition: Sonography, also known as ultrasonography, is a diagnostic medical imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of the internal structures of the human body. It is a non-invasive and safe procedure that helps in visualizing and identifying various conditions or diseases.

How Sonography Works

Sonography involves the use of a handheld device called a transducer, which emits high-frequency sound waves into the body. These sound waves bounce off the organs and tissues inside the body, creating echoes. The transducer then receives these echoes and sends them to a computer system, which converts them into real-time images.

Applications of Sonography

Sonography is widely used in various medical disciplines for diagnostic purposes. It can be used to examine and assess the health of different organ systems, including:

  • Obstetrics: Sonography is commonly used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, as well as detect any abnormalities.
  • Cardiology: Sonography helps in visualizing the heart’s structure and function, aiding in the diagnosis of heart conditions and abnormalities.
  • Gastroenterology: Sonography can be used to evaluate the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and other abdominal organs to detect diseases or abnormalities.
  • Urology: Sonography is utilized to examine the kidneys, bladder, and reproductive organs, allowing for the detection and diagnosis of urological conditions.
  • Orthopedics: Sonography is employed to assess musculoskeletal conditions such as tendons, ligaments, and joints, aiding in diagnosis and guiding injections or aspirations.

Advantages and Limitations of Sonography


  • Non-invasive procedure without the use of ionizing radiation.
  • Real-time imaging allows for dynamic observation of structures.
  • No known harmful effects to patients or operators.
  • Portable and can be used at the bedside or in various clinical settings.


  • Limited penetration of sound waves, hindering visualization of deep structures or dense tissues.
  • Dependent on the operator’s skill and experience for accurate interpretation.
  • Obesity and excessive gas in the intestines can interfere with imaging quality.
  • Not suitable for detailed evaluation of bone or lungs due to limited sound wave transmission through air or bone.