Social-Cognitive Perspective

The social-cognitive perspective is a psychological theory that focuses on how individuals acquire and process information, and how this influences their behavior in social situations. This perspective emphasizes the interaction between the person, the environment, and cognitive processes, such as perception, memory, and thinking.

Social Learning Theory

Central to the social-cognitive perspective is the social learning theory, which suggests that people learn from observing others and imitating their behaviors. This theory emphasizes the importance of modeling and vicarious learning, where individuals learn by observing the consequences of others’ actions.


Another key concept within the social-cognitive perspective is self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to an individual’s belief in their own abilities to successfully execute certain tasks or behaviors. It influences motivation, goal-setting, and persistence in the face of challenges.

Reciprocal Determinism

Reciprocal determinism is a fundamental principle in the social-cognitive perspective that highlights the dynamic interaction between personal factors (such as beliefs and cognitive processes), behavioral patterns, and environmental factors. It suggests that all three aspects continuously influence and shape each other.

Observational Learning

Observational learning is a process through which individuals acquire new knowledge, skills, or behavior by observing and imitating others. This aspect of the social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the importance of role models and how their behavior can impact others through the process of modeling.

Cognitive Processes

Social-cognitive perspective focuses on cognitive processes that influence social behavior, such as attention, perception, memory, and problem-solving. It explores how individuals interpret and make sense of social information, which subsequently impacts their behavior and interactions with others.