Sleep Apnea


Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep. These pauses, called apneas, can vary in duration and can occur multiple times throughout the night. Each apnea episode disrupts the normal sleep pattern, leading to poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness.

Types of Sleep Apnea:

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA):
  2. OSA is the most common form of sleep apnea, accounting for about 80-90% of cases. It occurs when the upper airway becomes partially or completely blocked during sleep, leading to breathing difficulties.

  3. Central Sleep Apnea (CSA):
  4. CSA is less common and involves the central nervous system. It occurs when the brain fails to send proper signals to the muscles responsible for controlling breathing.

  5. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome (CSAS or Mixed Sleep Apnea):
  6. CSAS is a combination of both obstructive and central sleep apnea. Initially, it may appear as OSA, but proper treatment can reveal its mixed nature.

Symptoms of Sleep Apnea:

  • Loud and chronic snoring
  • Pauses in breathing during sleep
  • Gasping or choking sounds during sleep
  • Daytime sleepiness and fatigue
  • Difficulty concentrating or forgetfulness
  • Irritability and mood swings
  • Morning headaches

Treatment Options:

The appropriate treatment for sleep apnea depends on the severity and type of apnea diagnosed. The common treatment options include:

  1. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP):
  2. A CPAP machine delivers pressurized air through a mask, keeping the airway open during sleep.

  3. Oral Appliances:
  4. Custom-made oral devices can help keep the airway open by repositioning the jaw and tongue.

  5. Weight Loss:
  6. For individuals with obesity-related sleep apnea, weight loss can significantly improve symptoms.

  7. Surgery:
  8. Surgical interventions may be necessary to remove obstructions or correct structural abnormalities in the airway.


Sleep apnea is a serious condition that affects breathing during sleep, causing interruptions in the normal sleep cycle. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing symptoms and improving overall quality of life.