Resting Potential:

The resting potential refers to the electrical charge difference across the membrane of a neuron when it is not generating an impulse or transmitting a signal. It is the state of a neuron at rest.

Importance of Resting Potential:

The resting potential is crucial for the proper functioning of neurons. It provides a baseline electrical charge that allows rapid transmission of nerve signals when needed.

Measuring Resting Potential:

Resting potential is typically measured in millivolts (mV) using an electrode placed inside and outside the neuron. The inside of the neuron is negatively charged relative to the outside, resulting in a negative resting potential.

Generation of Resting Potential:

The resting potential is primarily generated by the uneven distribution of ions across the neuron’s membrane, particularly sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and chloride (Cl-) ions. This distribution is maintained by ion channels and ion pumps.

Maintenance of Resting Potential:

To maintain the resting potential, the neuron actively pumps out three sodium ions (Na+) for every two potassium ions (K+) it pumps in, resulting in a slightly more negative interior. This process is called the sodium-potassium pump.

Function of Resting Potential:

The resting potential plays a crucial role in various neuronal processes, including establishing the threshold for generating an action potential, influencing the strength of synaptic transmission, and overall neuronal excitability.