Principles of Grouping


Proximity is a principle of grouping that suggests elements that are close to each other in space are perceived as a group. When items are placed near each other, viewers tend to see them as related or belonging together.


Similarity is a principle of grouping which states that items with similar characteristics or attributes are perceived as a group. Elements that share common visual properties such as color, shape, size, texture, or orientation are considered to be part of the same unit.


The principle of continuity suggests that elements arranged in a continuous line or a smooth curve are perceived as more related than those that aren’t. Viewers tend to perceive continuous patterns as flowing and connected, even if they are interrupted or hidden.


Closure is a principle of grouping that states that humans tend to mentally complete or close gaps in visual information to perceive complete shapes or objects. When presented with incomplete or fragmented elements, our perceptual system actively fills in the missing information to create a whole.


Figure-ground refers to the principle of perceiving objects or forms as either being in the foreground (the figure) or the background (the ground). Our visual system separates objects from their surroundings based on factors like contrast, color, and size, allowing us to distinguish between different elements.