Primary Hyperaldosteronism (Conn’s Syndrome)


Primary hyperaldosteronism, also known as Conn’s syndrome, is a hormonal disorder characterized by excessive production of aldosterone hormone by the adrenal glands. This condition leads to high levels of aldosterone in the blood, which causes sodium retention and potassium excretion. Primary hyperaldosteronism is usually caused by a benign adrenal adenoma or adrenal hyperplasia.


Signs and Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of Conn’s syndrome may include high blood pressure (hypertension), low potassium levels (hypokalemia), muscle weakness or cramps, excessive thirst or frequent urination (polydipsia and polyuria), and fatigue.


The main causes of primary hyperaldosteronism are adrenal adenoma (a non-cancerous tumor in the adrenal gland) and adrenal hyperplasia (enlargement of the adrenal glands). These abnormalities lead to overproduction of aldosterone, disrupting the normal balance of electrolytes in the body.


Diagnosing Conn’s syndrome involves various tests including blood tests to measure aldosterone and potassium levels, as well as renin levels. Imaging tests like CT scan or MRI may be performed to identify the presence of tumors or abnormalities in the adrenal glands. Adrenal vein sampling may also be conducted to locate the source of excessive aldosterone production.


Treatment options for primary hyperaldosteronism may involve medications to control blood pressure and normalize potassium levels. Surgical intervention, such as adrenalectomy (removal of the affected adrenal gland), may be necessary in cases where the condition is caused by a tumor.