Preeclampsia is a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure (hypertension) and damage to organs, most commonly the liver and kidneys. It typically occurs after 20 weeks of pregnancy and can be life-threatening if left untreated.


Preeclampsia may not present any noticeable symptoms in its early stages. However, as the condition progresses, common symptoms may include:

  1. High blood pressure (hypertension)
  2. Excessive swelling, especially in the hands and face
  3. Proteinuria (presence of excess protein in urine)
  4. Severe headaches or migraines
  5. Abdominal pain, particularly in the upper right side
  6. Visual disturbances, such as blurred vision or sensitivity to light
  7. Shortness of breath
  8. Nausea or vomiting


The exact cause of preeclampsia is still unknown. However, several risk factors have been identified, including:

  • First-time pregnancy
  • Multiple pregnancies (twins, triplets, etc.)
  • History of preeclampsia in previous pregnancies
  • Family history of preeclampsia
  • High blood pressure or kidney disease prior to pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • Age (under 20 or over 40)


Early detection and proper management of preeclampsia are crucial to ensure the health and safety of both the mother and the baby. Treatment options may involve:

  • Regular blood pressure monitoring
  • Bed rest or reduced physical activity
  • Dietary changes, such as reduced sodium intake
  • Medications to lower blood pressure
  • Antenatal corticosteroid injections to aid in fetal lung development (if preterm delivery is anticipated)
  • Delivery of the baby, in severe cases or if the pregnancy has reached full term

It is crucial for pregnant individuals to attend regular prenatal check-ups to monitor blood pressure and other health parameters, helping to identify and manage preeclampsia at an early stage.