Long-Term Memory refers to the stage of memory that involves the storage and retrieval of information over an extended period. It is a part of the memory system that holds a vast amount of knowledge, experiences, and skills acquired throughout a person’s lifetime.


  • Capacity: Long-Term Memory has an almost unlimited capacity to store information.
  • Duration: Memories in this system can last from minutes to an entire lifetime.
  • Encoding: Information in Long-Term Memory is stored through a process known as encoding, where it is transformed into a format that can be easily stored and retrieved.
  • Organization: Memories stored in this system are organized based on various factors such as meaning, relevance, and similar attributes.


Long-Term Memory can be further divided into the following types:

  1. Declarative Memory: Also known as explicit memory, it refers to the conscious recollection of facts, events, and knowledge that can be easily verbalized.
  2. Procedural Memory: Also known as implicit memory, it involves the unconscious memory of skills, habits, and procedures that are not easily expressed verbally.
  3. Episodic Memory: This type of memory involves the recollection of specific events or experiences that occurred at a particular time and place.
  4. Semantic Memory: Semantic memory relates to general knowledge and concepts that are not tied to specific events or experiences.


Retrieving information from Long-Term Memory involves the process of recall or recognition. Recall refers to the ability to retrieve information without any cues or prompts, while recognition involves identifying information when presented with relevant cues or options.


Long-Term Memory plays a crucial role in various cognitive functions, including problem-solving, decision-making, language comprehension, and learning. It forms the foundation for personal identity, as it stores an individual’s unique experiences and knowledge that shape their understanding of the world.